With Avian influenza (AI) a highly contagious viral disease affecting both domestic and wild birds, it is a hugely important obligation for every farmer to be aware of the effects of this disease. 

CP – as a leading agro-industry and animal husbandry company – aims to share knowledge and expertise in animal husbandry and animal care techniques with farmers and collaborative partners in Cambodia.

Dr. Kriangsak Laosakul, Assistant Vice President of Animal Health Department, said a strong biosecurity system is essential when raising poultry, something Cambodia adheres to on all its livestock farms. 

Understanding the types and symptoms of AI, managing any suspected cases and implementing biosecurity practices are outlined in three key points.

Also known as “bird flu”, AI is a highly contagious disease affecting birds including chickens and ducks, as well as wild bird species. 

A major concern in poultry farming, should there be a case of AI, according to the regulations all infected birds must be culled, without exception, and their bodies burned to prevent a widespread outbreak.

Types of AI

There are two types of AI, based on virulence of pathogenicity.

Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (LPAI)

Low pathogenicity avian influenza occurs naturally in wild birds and can spread to domestic birds. 

In many cases, infected birds may show only mild symptoms or none at all. LPAI generally poses a threat to human health. 

LPAI viruses have the potential to mutate into highly pathogenic strains of bird flu. For instance, The H9N2 strain is a LPAI virus which has been known to spread globally.


There may be no apparent symptoms;

Mild respiratory symptoms including coughing, sneezing or a clear discharge running from the nostrils of birds;

Declining egg production and deformed eggs;

Loss of appetite. 

Mortality rate: 5-10%.

Highly pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI)

Highly pathogenic avian influenza spreads rapidly and has a higher mortality rate than LPAI. 

CP Cambodia adheres to a strong biosecurity system on all its livestock farms.

HPAI has been detected and eliminated three times in US domestic poultry. 

One specific subtype, HPAI H5N1, has shown the ability to rapidly spread across regions. 

H5N1 is the HPAI virus of most concern globally as ducks can carry this type of AI without showing any symptoms and then transmit it to chickens.


Bruising and swelling of the head; 

Redness of the feet and ankles;

Respiratory symptoms, diarrhoea, seizures;

Sudden death within two to three days. 

High mortality rate: 90-100%.

What to do if AI is suspected

Stop the movement of infected chickens, isolate suspected chickens and keep them separate, use separate staff and equipment, and spray disinfectant in related areas.

Report immediately to the authorities for inspection.

Collect samples from suspected chickens for testing.

If a test is confirmed as positive, all chickens must be culled, and the farm must be disinfected as a standard measure.

Preventing avian influenza

Implementing robust biosecurity measures and adhering to strict hygiene practices are crucial 

in preventing the spread of bird flu. 

There are two key components for implementing effective biosecurity.

3.1. Preventing direct infection

Select chickens from a trusted origin without AI.

Do not mix chickens of different species, especially chickens and ducks, and/or of different origin. 

Avoid interaction with wild birds.

Raise chickens in standardised housing.

3.2. Preventing indirect infection

Restrict access to the raising area.

Farmer and employees should wear protective clothing and footwear. 

Vehicles and equipment must be disinfected before entering the raising area.

Dr. Kriangsak Laosakul, Assistant Vice President of Animal Health Department.

Animal feed must be from reliable source and kept properly. 

Water has to be as clean as possible and from a safe source.

Farm needs to implement a pest control programme; 

Keep all equipment clean, with no sharing between farm and housing. 

Dispose of and manage waste as necessary. 

Ensure environment is clean. 

Public health concerns

While the risk of human infection with AI is low, repeated exposure to infected chickens or highly contaminated environments can increase the risk of contracting bird flu. 

The virus can enter the human body through the eyes, nose, mouth or the inhalation of contaminated air (through droplets or dust particles), with transmission possible through contact with contaminated surfaces, followed by touching the face.

Symptoms of bird flu in humans vary in severity. They can range from the mild (red eyes, respiratory issues) to the severe (pneumonia, fever, muscle aches). 

With this disease, it usually spreads through unprotected contact with infected birds, and practising good hygiene, especially after holding poultry, is crucial for prevention.

It is advisable to avoid eating undercooked chicken or eggs, although the risk of transmission through consuming remains unclear.

All CP drugs and feed products are top quality, highly efficient and of high standard, helping to better prevent avian influenza (AI).

With its vision of being the “Kitchen of the World”, Charoen Pokphand Foods (CPF) – the agro-industrial and food conglomerate headquartered in Thailand – has been investing in Cambodia under the name “CP Cambodia Co, Ltd” since 1996.

CP Cambodia operates three main businesses – “feed, farm and food”, with the distribution of its products, both wholesale and retail, centered on social and environmental responsibility.

CP Cambodia remains committed to supporting Cambodian farmers by providing knowledge, resources and expert guidance to ensure the success and sustainability of their poultry operations.

Customers interested in consulting on animal health or purchasing CP animal medicine products for use or for sale, please contact 012 318 040, visit the CP Cambodia Facebook page or use the QR codes.